>An article published by Time Magazine quotes Rachel Elior, Professor of Jewish mysticism at Jerusalem’s Hebrew University, who says that the Essenes were not the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and that the existence of the Essenes was a creation of Flavius Josephus.
Below is an excerpt from the article:
Biblical scholars have long argued that the Dead Sea Scrolls were the work of an ascetic and celibate Jewish community known as the Essenes, which flourished in the 1st century A.D. in the scorching desert canyons near the Dead Sea. Now a prominent Israeli scholar, Rachel Elior, disputes that the Essenes ever existed at all – a claim that has shaken the bedrock of biblical scholarship.
Elior, who teaches Jewish mysticism at Jerusalem’s Hebrew University, claims that the Essenes were a fabrication by the 1st century A.D. Jewish-Roman historian Flavius Josephus and that his faulty reporting was passed on as fact throughout the centuries. As Elior explains, the Essenes make no mention of themselves in the 900 scrolls found by a Bedouin shepherd in 1947 in the caves of Qumran, near the Dead Sea. “Sixty years of research have been wasted trying to find the Essenes in the scrolls,” Elior tells TIME. “But they didn’t exist. This is legend on a legend.”
Elior contends that Josephus, a former Jewish priest who wrote his history while being held captive in Rome, “wanted to explain to the Romans that the Jews weren’t all losers and traitors, that there were many exceptional Jews of religious devotion and heroism. You might say it was the first rebuttal to anti-Semitic literature.” She adds, “He was probably inspired by the Spartans. For the Romans, the Spartans were the highest ideal of human behavior, and Josephus wanted to portray Jews who were like the Spartans in their ideals and high virtue.”
According to the article, Elior believes that the renegade sons of Zadok were the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Elior’s theory about the authorship of the Scrolls is as controversial as the view proposed by Norman Golb. I am sure that this new proposal will continue the controversy about the origin of the Scrolls.
Read the details of this new theory proposed by Rachel Elior by visiting the Time web page.
Professor of Old Testament
Northern Baptist Seminary